Curtin, ‘Medical degree and urban considered inside the exotic Africa’, AHR, 90, step 3 (Summer 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical degree and urban considered inside the exotic Africa’, AHR, 90, step 3 (Summer 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (step one914), 140-step one

96 AOM, AP648, Decree toward production of a great Commune from the Brazzaville, 5 Oct 1911; message out-of Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Yearly report out-of Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty-six. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Bien au Congo, 121. one hundred Colonel Moll, Une dme de colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De- Bordeaux bien au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step 32-step three, step three 8 ^ 0 . 101 To possess metropolitan tissues in the colonial Africa, get a hold of, Philip D. Betts, Unclear dimensions: western overseas empires regarding twentieth-century (Minneapolis: College or university off Minnesota Push, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion sur l’architecture europeenne le long de- la cote africaine a partir de l’exemple de- los angeles Guinee’, inside Almeida-Topor and you can Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes en ce qui concerne VAfrique, 81-92; and you may Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition on service from modernity: frameworks and urbanism inside the French colonial plan, 1900-1930’, Record of modern Records, 59 (Summer 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 For the history and you may requirement for this new Fourteenth out of July when you look at the Brazzaville, discover Phyllis Yards. Martin, ‘National holidays transformed: the fresh new fourteenth off July during the Brazzaville’, papers showed within thirty-7th annual meeting of your own African Training Relationship, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne los angeles part de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 106 Address from Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais dentro de Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The perception away from colonialism toward health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical degree and you will metropolitan planning’, 594-seven. 110 Ibid., 598-609; and Headrick, ‘The perception regarding colonialism into health’, 1cuatro3-4, 801-dos. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport sur la region de Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. I, 398. 113 Challaye, Ce Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne los angeles area de Brazzaville’; and additionally AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Administrator to help you Commissioner-Standard from inside the Libreville, thirteen July 1901. 116 Quoted from inside the Headrick, ‘The impression of colonialism for the health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 Could possibly get 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Yearly accounts ‘Oeuvres de la Sainte-Enfance’, twenty four Oct 1901,step 1 January 1903,ten November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue is a mention of manioc cash. 120 AOM, TP152, 1st show, Purpose Fillon, Statement out-of Meters. Henri for the Brazzaville workforce, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine.

Fehderau, The origin and you may development of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) means that Kituba is a code in the slave trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Objective Journal, 30 Can get 1908; Roentgen. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine. 124 Select, particularly, J.-P. Chretien and you may Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The creation of tribalism when you look at the southern area Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Grey, Adaptation and you may social title: the production of national area inside the outlying France and colonial place inside rural Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana College Focus on Global Changes and you can Business Peace, 1994); Terence Ranger, The innovation from heritage during the colonial Africa’, when you look at the Hobsbawm and Ranger (eds.), This new invention out of traditions, 211-62, he has actually changed just like the innovation out-of society reviewed: happening off colonial Africa’, in the Terence Ranger and you can Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Authenticity and also District of Columbia singles the condition for the twentieth century Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. Regarding the posting of his article, Ranger might have been influenced, yet others, by Benedict Anderson, Thought groups: reflections towards the origins and give away from nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, The newest root of Kituba and you will Lingala’, Diary out of African Dialects and you will Linguistics, several, step one (Sep 1991), 47-77, suggests that the diffusion are so much more regarding foreign railway workers in the down Congo. 126 ASMF, Elizabeth l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren so you can SMF, 18 October 1911; B and you will Age. no. 1, Korr., Lindgren in order to SMF, eleven November 1911; F. zero. step 1, Dagbok, twenty-two February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, Grams. A good. Hult so you can SMF, eleven January 1918. 127 Address away from Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Statement regarding the Pool section, Brazzaville, Could possibly get 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y a good-t-il des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The sources off Kituba and you can Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you may colonial imagination’, Canadian Diary off African Training, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, twenty five (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Mission Record, 31 May 1908,25 Sep 1910,step one December 1913. 131 Pick chapters 3 and you may 4. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, twenty-seven (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees bien au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), 50, 72-step 3,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 31, 30. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management declaration, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban space, commercial day, and you will salary labor into the Africa’, in his Strive toward town, 23. 2 1

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